The word \u201cGeography\u201d though not used often by us in our daily life, but it\u2019s presence, reference and value has become an integral part of our activities in the way\r\n\r\n \twe do business,\r\n \twe communicate,\r\n \twe manage our resources\r\n \tway we live.\r\n\r\nWe are into the age of Enterprise GIS which helps to solve\r\n\r\n \tBusiness problems\r\n \tAutomate Business processes\r\n \tNew ways to analyze business and spatial data by incorporating the knowledge of \u201cWhere\u201d into the existing business models of \u201cWhy\u201d, \u201cWhat\u201d and \u201cWhen\u201d.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nPetroleum Industry \u2013 Need of Integrated Business-GIS:\r\n\r\nThe use of geography in analyzing and making decisions is not a new thing in the oil and natural gas industry. A good understanding of geography is required in every step of a petroleum industry starting\r\n\r\n \tfrom locating a place to drill a well,\r\n \troute a pipeline\r\n \tfrom the exploration site to the refinery plant,\r\n \tfinding an ideal location for a refinery and lot more\r\n\r\nPetroleum Industry -Scope of GIS integration and Applications:\r\n\r\nThe petroleum Industry can be functionally divided into 2 categories.\r\n\r\n \tProduction and Refining Sector.\r\n \tRetail Outlet Management and Distribution Network.\r\n\r\nProductions and Refining Sector:\r\n\r\nThis involves the process of exploring new locations as petroleum reserves, managing the production of crude petroleum from earth strata, managing the pipeline network to transfer crude sources to refining plant and facility management of various resources connected to such a huge industry.\r\n\r\n1-Petroleum Exploration:\r\n\r\nExploration requires the analysis of a lot of different types of data such as satellite imagery, digital aerial photo mosaics, seismic surveys, surface geology studies, subsurface and cross section interpretations and images, well locations, and existing infrastructure information.\r\n\r\nAnalysis Process:\r\n\r\nIntegrated Analysis\r\n\r\n2-Production:\r\n\r\nTo produce found reserves, the company must first understand certain geographic, infrastructure, business conditions, and environmental factors about the area in question. GIS technology is ideally suited to this kind of overlay analysis.\r\n\r\n3-Managing Facilities:\r\n\r\nGIS can be used to map the gathering and transmission of products to a facility.\r\n\r\n4-Pipeline Management:\r\n\r\n \tSome of the variables include:\r\n \tShortest distance from source to market\r\n \tLeast grading (removal of trees, etc.)\r\n \tCosts association\r\n \tNumber of stream, road, and railroad crossings\r\n \tSubstrate (rock, soils, etc., associated with burial)\r\n \tExisting laws and regulations (wetlands, etc.)\r\n \tUtilization of existing utility corridors\r\n \tCoverage analysis.\r\n \tEnvironmental damage\r\n \tEnvironmental response and investigation\r\n \tCriminal and civil penalties\r\n \tEnvironmental remediation\r\n \tDamage to reputation and community relations\r\n\r\n5-Retail Outlet Management and Distribution:\r\n\r\nThis is the area where a lot of GIS developmental activities can take place. Retail companies can use the power of GIS systems to optimize their business with intelligent analytical GIS tools and planning tools and provide better customer and outlet services.\r\n\r\nCoverage Analysis:\r\n\r\n \tFleet management -mapping of Petrol stations by brand, ownership, price, volume, shop size or by any geography, such as country, postcode, catchments area\r\n \tLocating Optimal position of a new outlet\r\n \tOptimal routing of Petroleum tankers across the country and across the city.\r\n \tCrisis management\r\n \tVolume distribution of petroleum products\r\n \tGeographic analysis of distribution pattern.\r\n \tFinding a specific outlet in a city and deriving a route to go there.\r\n\r\nGIS solutions:\r\n\r\n \tCorporate GIS data management\r\n \tMap production and presentation\r\n \tDigital Elevation Models and hydrology\r\n \tEnvironmental sensitivity analysis and modeling\r\n \tPipeline route optimization and pipeline leakage risk\r\n \tInternet mapping and image web server solutions\r\n \tWorkflow analysis\r\n \tCrisis Management on the Internet\r\n \tConversion of current environmental data to GIS format\r\n \tLinkage of oil spill model to GIS.\r\n \tRetail market analysis.\r\n \tDistribution analysis.\r\n \tMarket pattern analysis by demographics.\r\n \t3-dimensional GIS\r\n \tImproved "Conflation" tools.\r\n \tRetail outlet supply routing and many more\u2026\r\n\r\nFuture Expectations:\r\n\r\n \tGeologic Evaluation\r\n \tReservoir Analysis\r\n \t(access of seismic data and well logs)\r\n \tLand \/ Lease Management\r\n \tDrilling Activity Analysis\r\n \tCompetitor Analysis\r\n \tGas Marketing\r\n \tImproved integration with our relational databases. .