A Lifting lug is a plate with a hole in it. As the term specifies, lifting lugs are used for lifting. The hole is sized to fit a clevis pin. Using lifting lugs combined with the clevis pins, loads are transferred to one mechanical component to another. For mechanical static equipment (Fig. 1), these lifting lugs are used by cranes for transportation and installation.\n\n\n\nWhile lifting these mechanical equipment, the lugs must be able to carry the complete weight of the equipment. Also, while transporting and installation various kinds of forces act on those lifting lugs. Hence, lifting lug design has to be accurate enough to avoid any failure. In this article, we will briefly explore the lifting lug design methodology.\n\n\n\nLifting Lug Arrangements for lifting Vessels\n\n\n\nFig. 1 below shows the lifting lug arrangements that are attached to pressure vessels for industrial use.\n\n\n\nFig. 1: Lifting Arrangements for Vessels\n\n\n\nLifting Lug Shapes\n\n\n\nLifting lugs can be of various shapes as shown in Fig. 2. The shapes are decided by manufacturers. \n\n\n\nFig. 2: Shapes of Lifting Lugs\n\n\n\nLifting Lug Arrangements for Horizontal Vessels\n\n\n\nFig. 3 shown widely used industrial lifting arrangements during construction for horizontal vessels.\n\n\n\nFig. 3: Lifting Arrangements for Horizontal Vessels\n\n\n\nLifting Arrangements for Leg Supported Vessels\n\n\n\nFig. 4 shows typical lifting arrangements popularly used for vertical vessels in industries.\n\n\n\nFig. 4: Lifting Arrangements for Vertical Vessels\n\n\n\nForces in Lifting Lug Design\n\n\n\nHorizontal to vertical lifting Forces:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nHorizontal to vertical lifting Forces Calculations:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nHorizontal to vertical lifting Forces Calculations with Sample Problem:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nLifting Lug design Standard\n\n\n\nASME BTH-1 \u201cDesign of Below-The-Hook Lifting Devices.\u201d governs the design of lifting lugs for industries. For producing a safe reliable design, This is the most widely used lifting lug design standard. However, As such standards do not clearly address the local stress calculation steps, Finite Element Analysis is performed using various software like Ansys, PV-elite, etc.\n\n\n\nLifting Lug Design\n\n\n\nLifting lug design is very critical and hence mostly done using FEA software. The basic design of a lifting lug is consists of four parts;\n\n\n\nthe design of lug plate,verifying the weld used to connect it to a shell or structure,checking the bearing stress at the pin-hole andconfirming the end area of the lug.\n\n\n\nThe following image shows the parts of a Pad-Efe Lifting Lug.\n\n\n\nPart of a typical lifting lug\n\n\n\nIn the following section, we will see the design methodology followed for lifting lug design using PV-Elite software.\n\n\n\nLifting Lug design Thickness calculations:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nPV Elite Forces and sign Conventions:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nPV Elite Lifting Lug Sample Example\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThis presentation is prepared by Mr. Deepak Sethia who is working in ImageGrafix Software FZCO, the Hexagon CAS Global Network Partner in the Middle East and Egypt. He has extensive experience in using Caesar II and PV Elite software and troubleshooting.