Control Valve Sizing is a procedure of deciding the appropriate type and size of the control valve to optimally satisfy the requirements of fluid flow management. This article will describe the Control Valve Sizing Procedure with some details of related headings like Valve Flow Terminologies, Control Valve Characteristics, Cavitation, Flashing, etc.\n\n\n\nControl Valve Flow Terminologies\n\n\n\nThe following control valve terminologies are required to define before we proceed for control valve sizing steps.\n\n\n\nPressure Drop: It is the difference between the upstream pressure and downstream pressure of the control valve.Cv (Flow Coefficient): The Cv is the number of U.S gallons of water flowing during one min. at 60 Deg F through a restriction and the pressure drop through this restriction is 1 psi.Vena contracta: The vena contracta is where the jet of flowing fluid is smallest.Choked or critical flow: The flow is said to be choked when:Vena contracta is filled with vapor from cavitation or flashing.Fluid velocity at vena contracta reaches sonic.Vapor pressure: It is the pressure at which the given liquid will vaporize at the given temperatureCf (Critical Flow Factor): The Cf factor is an indication of the valve\u2019s vena contracta pressure relative to the valve\u2019s outlet pressure.\n\n\n\nPressure Recovery Factor in Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nPressure Recovery Factor\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nControl Valve Characteristics for sizing a control valve\n\n\n\nValve characteristics describe the relationship between valve travel and flow rate. Control Valve Characteristics are determined by the Design of the Valve Trim.\n\n\n\nInherent Characteristics\n\n\n\nExpresses the relationship between the valve travel and flowrate for a constant pressure drop across the control valve.\n\n\n\nQuick Opening-On-off control with no throttling.Linear-Flowrate is linear with plug position.Equal Percentage-Equal increment of travel produces an equal % change in the flow.\n\n\n\nRelationship between % Flow & % Valve Opening\n\n\n\nA typical Characteristics of Equal percentage Valve\n\n\n\nTypical Valve Characteristics\n\n\n\nInstalled Characteristics\n\n\n\nInstalled Characteristics are what really matter to a process engineer.Expresses the relationship between the valve travel and flowrate for a varying pressure drop across the control valve.Installed characteristics of Equal percentage valve is nearly linear when pressure drop varies with the flow.\n\n\n\nInstalled vs Inherent characteristics:\n\n\n\nThe inherent flow characteristics do not reflect the actual performance of the valve as installed. The ideal condition of constant valve pressure drop (\u2206P) is unlikely to be true and the \u2018operating\u2019 characteristics will have a deviation from the inherent characteristics.The deviation in the characteristics depends on the pressure drop variation across the control valve, as the control valve operates from minimum flow at its initial travel position to its maximum flow at its fully opened position.\n\n\n\nSelection of Valve Characteristics for Control Valve Sizing \n\n\n\nFollowing method should be used for control valve sizing\n\n\n\nChoose Equal percentage characteristics, if Pvalve < 70% of system Pressure DropChoose Linear characteristics, if Pvalve > 70% of system Pressure Drop\n\n\n\nData Required for Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nA combination of theory and empirical data should be used for control valve sizing and selection. Typically, the following data are used for control valve sizing:\n\n\n\nOperating Flowrates:- Maximum flow; Normal flow; Minimum flowFluid Properties:-Fluid Phase; Molecular Weight; Vapor Pressure; Ratio of specific heats; Compressibility; Specific gravity; ViscosityParameters:- Source Pressure; Destination pressure; Design pressure; Operating temperature; Shut off Pressure\n\n\n\nImportant Parameters for Control Valve Sizing and Selection:\n\n\n\nValve size or valve coefficient (Cv)Pressure-Temperature ratingFlow mediumService requirements (flow regulation or on-off type)Material of constructionValve Action (Normally Open vs. Normally Closed)Precision controlLeakage or Tight shut-off\n\n\n\nControl Valve Sizing Procedure\n\n\n\nRangeability: \n\n\n\nRangeability is the ratio of maximum to minimum controllable Cv. It is common practice to select a control valve within the following range:\n\n\n\nMaximum flow:\n\n\n\nValve opening <= 95 % for Equal Percentage TrimValve opening <= 90 % for Linear and Quick Opening Trim\n\n\n\nNormal flow: Valve opening should be at least 60 %\n\n\n\nMinimum flow: Valve opening >= 10 %\n\n\n\nControl valve do, what they are told !\n\n\n\nThe need for the fail-safe position\n\n\n\nFail to Open (FO)Fail to Close (FC)Fail Last\n\n\n\nFC \/ FO schematic\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nDouble Acting Actuator\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nControl Valve Sizing Calculation\n\n\n\nSizing control valve for Maximum flow-\n\n\n\nEstimate Max. required flowCalculate the system pressure drop without valveChoose a valve that will pass maximum flow when about 90% open.\n\n\n\nSize for minimum flow-\n\n\n\nFollow the same procedure as above and choose a valve that will pass minimum flow when about 10% open\n\n\n\nControl Valve Sizing for Normal flow-\n\n\n\nFollow the same procedure and choose a valve that will pass normal flow when about 60-70% open\n\n\n\nPressure Drop calculation:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nCv Calculation for Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nThe flow co-efficient or Cv is an important parameter for control valve sizing. This is also known as valve co-efficient. It specifies the number of U.S gallons of water that flows through a restriction in one minute at 60 Deg F keeping the pressure drop through this restriction is 1 psi. The Cv calculation procedure for liquid flow, gaseous\/steam flow and two-phase flow are provided below for reference.\n\n\n\nCv Calculation Liquid flow:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nCv Calculation Gas and Steam:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nCv Calculation Two Phase flow:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nEffect of Reducers on Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nDecrease in actual valve capacityCreates additional pressure drop in the systemFlow Capacity Correction Factor (R)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThumb Rules for Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nFew general thumb rules prevalent in industries while sizing control valves are:\n\n\n\nAssign the system and size the control valve such that:Pvalve = 25% system pressure drop (including control valve) or Pvalve = 1\/3rd system pressure drop (excluding control valve)The valve to be sized to operates between 20 to 80% open at the maximum required flow rate.The minimum opening should not be less than 20% at the minimum flow rate to provide a safety margin\n\n\n\nCavitation and Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nCavitation in control valve sizing is a two stage phenomena:\n\n\n\nFormation of vapor bubblesCollapsing of vapor bubbles\n\n\n\nCavitation Phenomena:\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNegative Effects of Cavitation:\n\n\n\nResists the fluid flowCauses severe vibrationsErodes metal surfaceGenerates high noise levels\n\n\n\nCavitation Countermeasures:\n\n\n\nSelect valve style that has Cf value greater than required for the applicationIncrease pressure at upstream of the control valve by reducing elevation in the piping systemInstallation of the orifice at the downstream of the control valve\n\n\n\nFlashing\n\n\n\nDefinition - Pressure at the valve outlet remains below vapour pressure\n\n\n\nNegative effects-Two phase flow in the downstream of control valve; Erosion\n\n\n\nLimitations in Control Valve Performance\n\n\n\nNoise-\n\n\n\n85 dBA for process control and daily service applications90 dBA for infrequent letdown and recirculation5 dBA credit may be taken for insulation.\n\n\n\nVibration and Erosion limits\n\n\n\nLiquid Service-\n\n\n\nTrim Exit vel. < 30 m\/s for single phase liquidsTrim Exit vel. < 23 m\/s for cavitating, flashing erosive services\n\n\n\nGas Service\n\n\n\nTrim Exit vel. Head > 480 kPa for continuous serviceTrim Exit vel. Head > 1030 kPa for infrequent service\n\n\n\nPositioner\n\n\n\nA position controller (servomechanism) that is mechanically connected to a moving part of a final control element or its actuator and that automatically adjusts its output to the actuator to maintain the desired position in proportion to the input signal.\n\n\n\nControl Valve Sizing Standard\n\n\n\nWidely used control valve sizing standards are\n\n\n\nISA75.01.01, Control Valve Sizing EquationsIEC 60534-2-1DEP 32.36.01.17-Gen, Control valves \u2013 selection, sizing, and specification\n\n\n\nSimplified Steps for Control Valve Sizing\n\n\n\nThe following steps can be followed for simplified Control Valve Sizing:\n\n\n\nSTEP #1: Define a maximum allowable pressure drop for the valveSTEP # 2: Calculate the valve coefficient (Cv)STEP # 3: Preliminary valve selectionSTEP # 4: Check the Cv and stroke percentage at the minimum flowSTEP # 5: Check the gain across applicable flow rates: Gain is defined as:Gain = \u2206 Flow \/ \u2206 Travel; the gain should never be less than 0.50\n\n\n\nFew more Resources for you\u2026Details about control valvesBall Valve Design Features: A LiteratureA brief article on Valve Inspection & TestingAn article on ROTARY SELECTOR VALVE (RSV) and MULTIPHASE FLOW METER (MPFM)Selection of Valves: A Few GuidelinesPiping Design and Layout BasicsPiping Materials BasicsPiping Stress Analysis BasicsFew Job Opportunities for you..