Defines the suction and discharge conditions (P, T, Flowrate) and gas composition.
The main input to the compressor vendor.
Define all possible options of suction and discharge conditions and gas compositions, present, and future.
The vendor selects the model which fits these conditions the best.
Compressor performance curves
Input from the compressor vendor
Relationship of Flow vs. Head (polytropic, isentropic)
Surge point and choking (stone wall)
Variation with RPM
Input to HYSYS for the generation of performance at different conditions
Input from compressor vendor.
Defines the interstage pressures and temperatures.
Gives input for the HYSYS simulation.
HYSYS simulation model
Based on the Compressor performance data
Forms the basis for material and energy balance.
Defines the cooler heat duty.
Generates property data for the calculations.
Compressor and Motor
Coupling (e.g. Voith)
Lube oil System
Seal oil / Seal gas system
Piping and Instrumentation
Advantages Seal gas system
No seal oil system required
No need to dispose of/clean up contaminated oil
Eliminates fouling problems due to oil ingress in process streams
Less gas loss
The dry gas seal advantages significantly outweigh the seal oil benefits
Settle out Calculations
Pipe sizing calculations
Settle out calculation
Equalized pressure during a compressor shutdown.
High-pressure trip conditions taken as pressures before settle out.
Enthalpy balance of the system.
It can be done using a spreadsheet or HYSYS.
It can define the design pressure for some of the sections.
Intent: Reduce the pressure of the equipment to 50% of design pressure within 15 minutes during a fire emergency.
Typically done using Dynamic depressurizing Utility in HYSYS
Relief valves are not a depressurization device.
Ball valve + Orifice combination OR control valve
The blowdown calculation takes the following into account:
Vaporization of liquid due to pressure reduction,
Vaporization due to heat input from the external fire,
Pressure after 15 minutes is reduced from design pressure to 50% of design pressure,
Start at settle out conditions.
Gas compressor system is blocked in and no additional mass is fed into the system during blowdown.
Maximum allowable depressurization rate for the compressor O-rings of 20 bar/min,
There is no other heat input into the system other than fire.
The relief rate calculated is not limited by the flare.
Use to find the lowest temperature attained and hydrate formation possibilities.
Uncontrolled vs. Staged Blowdown
Pipe sizing calculations
Importance of pressure drop and machine performance.
Cooler header sizing.
Avoiding loops in suction.
Provision of drain boots.
Hydrates are ice-like non-stoichiometric crystal structures composed of water molecules engaging natural gas molecules.
The solid formation chokes piping.
The formation depends on P, T conditions and composition.
Predicted by HYSYS.
Gas Blow-by calculations
Caused by losing liquid level in the scrubbers.
High-pressure gas flows into the low-pressure system potentially over pressurizing it.
Calculations are done to ensure that the downstream system is adequately protected.
The control valve is considered to be fully open during this case.
The highest operating pressure of the upstream system is considered for sizing.
Vertical Knock out vessels.
Limit liquid carries over to the compressors.
Internals – SMS / SV / SVS
Heat duty based on Process Simulation.
Process parameters based on the simulation.
The vendor does the sizing with HTRI or other proprietary software.
Pressure drop is critical.
Flare and Blowdown system
The flare system needs to be designed for
Blowdown depressurizing load.
Flaring due to compressor trip
Fire case relief
Blocked discharge of the compressor
The flare system may require a KOD based on the quality of gas flared. (Liquid presence)
Scrubber level control
Close the discharge ESD valve. The suction ESD valve shall remain in an open position. The blowdown ESD valve shall remain in a closed position. The antisurge valves and capacity control valve goes to open position. The motor stops and the compressor settles out to suction pressure. The auxiliaries keep running.
Generally initiated on trips on process parameters.
Enables faster start-up compared to ESD
PSD1 shall Trip the compressor motor & auxiliaries, and Close the ESD valve on the suction and discharge header.
The antisurge valves and capacity control valve goes to open position.
The external seal gas supply shall be isolated by the ESD valve on the seal gas line.
The compressor blowdown valves shall open and depressurize the gas to flare.
Initiated on Fire, Station ESD.
The suction, inter-stage(s), and discharge scrubbers low-level close liquid outlet ESD valves.
The inter-stage(s) and After-cooler fan high vibration shall trip the respective fan.
Low temperature at the aftercooler outlet shall trip the first working fan at 30 deg C and the next at 20 deg C.
External seal gas high pressure downstream of external seal gas pressure letdown valve for LP casing shall close the external seal gas supply ESD valve.
I am a Mechanical Engineer turned into a Piping Engineer. Currently, I work in a reputed MNC as a Senior Piping Stress Engineer. I am very much passionate about blogging and always tried to do unique things. This website is my first venture into the world of blogging with the aim of connecting with other piping engineers around the world.
All piping materials expand or contract when exposed to temperatures greater or lower than the installation temperature. As the temperature of the pipe material increases due to fluid temperature or...