Drilling rigs are massive structural equipment that is used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells. By rotating a bit, a hole is drilled using a downward force.
Types of Reservoir
Main Trapping Mechanism
Types of Drilling Rigs
Drilling Rigs are classified as follows
- Land Rigs
- Submersible Rigs
- Jack-up Rigs
- Platform Rigs
- Semi-submersible Rigs
- Drill Ship Rigs
Based on the configuration of the drilling rigs, they are grouped into Light, Medium, Heavy and Ultraheavy groups. The capabilities of such drilling rigs are tabulated below:
|Light||3000 – 5000||1000 – 1500|
|Medium||4000 – 10,000||1200 – 3000|
|Heavy||12,000 – 16,000||3500 – 5000|
|Ultraheavy||18,000 – 25,000||5500 – 7500|
Land Drilling Rigs
The features of Land drilling rigs are
- They typically come in light, medium or heavy configuration
- Is moved using heavy trucks and cranes
- Small rigs may only drill to a few thousand feet.
- But larger ones are capable of 12,000 and more
Submersible Drilling Rigs
The features of Submersible Drilling Rigs are
- Tend to drill in fairly shallow water. They flood the legs with water and submerge.
- Some of the rig is above water, and crews drill from that location.
- Swamp type, river and inland bay areas
- Typical water depths are 20 feet
Jack-up Drilling Rigs
The features of Jack-up Drilling Rigs are
- Have lattice legs which can be hoisted and lowered at will.
- They are hoisted and the rig is either towed or transported by ship.
- When in location, the legs are lowered to the sea-bed.
- Jack-up rigs can drill in water depths up to 400ft
Platform Drilling Rigs
The features of Platform Drilling Rigs are
- Are immobile once built.
- However, they drill several wells from the one location.
- They can be tender assisted.
- Three types of Platform are:
- 1-Steel Jacket, 2- Caisson Type 3- Concrete Gravity
Semi-submersible Drilling Rigs
The features of semi-submersible drilling rigs are
- Has hollow legs and pontoons. Like the submersible, the legs are also flooded
- However, anchors and/or Thrusters and Positioners keep the rig in position,
- When thrusters are used, it is called Dynamic Positioning (computer controlled),
- Are self propelled, floating offshore drill units
- A template which has holes drilled though it is fitted to the sea bed
- The Power System
- The Rotating System
- The Hoisting System
- The Circulating System
- The Blowouts Prevention System
Sub divided into two parts
- Power Generation
- Power Transmission
- Electrical Transmission
- Mechanical Transmission
- The supporting structure
- The hoisting equipment
- Transports cutting out of the hole
- Supports well bore wall
- Cools and lubricates bit and drill stem
- Water based drilling fluid
- Oil based mud
- Air or gas based drilling fluids
Blowouts Prevention System
The BOP system has two functions
- To seal the well bore on a kick
- To maintain sufficient back pressure
BOP used in
Sub Sea BOP used in
- Drill Ship.
Hydrostatic Pressure- Hydrostatic Pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by column of fluid this pressure is function of average fluid density and the vertical height or depth of fluid column.
Mathematically it is expressed as:
- HP = Hydrostatic pressure. (psi),
- g = Gravitational acceleration,
- ρf = Average fluid density. (ppg),
- D = True vertical depth. (ft)
Pore Pressure- Pore Pressure is defined as the pressure acting on the fluids in the pore spaces of the rock.
- Normal Pore Pressure: Normal pore pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure
- Abnormal Pore Pressure: It is defined as any pore pressure that is greater than the hydrostatic pressure
- Subnormal Pore Pressure: It is defined as any pore pressure that is less than the corresponding pore fluid hydrostatic pressure at a given depth
- Overburden Pressure: Overburden Pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the total weight of overlying formations above the point ofinterest,
- Fracture Gradient: It is defined as the pressure at which formation break down occurs
Functions of Casing
- Prevent cave-in or washout of the hole
- Prevent contamination between zones
- Exclude water from producing formations
- Confine production to the well bore
- Provide a means for controlling well pressure
- Provide a path for produced fluids
- Permit installation of artificial lift equipment
Casing Design Principles
Collapse Pressure- This pressure originates from the column of mud used to drill the hole and acts on the outside of the empty casing,Since the hydrostatic pressure of a column of mud increases with depth collapse pressure is highest at the bottom and zero at top.
C = mud density x depth x acceleration due to gravity,
C = ρgh,
C = 0.052 ρ h
Burst: The burst criterion is normally based on the maximum formation pressure resulting from a kick during the drilling of the next hole section.
Therefore, the burst pressure is highest at
the top and lowest at the casing shoe where internal pressure is resisted by
the external pressure originated from fluids outside the casing.
Burst pressure at surface (B1) = Pf – G x TD, Calculate the internal pressure (Pi) at the shoe using the maximum formation pressure at next hole TD, assuming the hole is full of gas:
Pi = Pf – G (TD – CSD)
Pe = 0.465 x CSD,
Burst pressure at shoe (B2) = Pi – Pe
B2 = (Pf – G) x (TD – CSD) – 0.465 x CSD.
Tension: Most of axial tension arises from the weight of the casing itself, Other tension loadings can arise due to: Bending, Drag, Shock loading and during pressure testing of casing.
Calculate weight of casing in air (positive value) using true vertical depth,
Casing air weight = casing weight (lb/ft) * hole depth (TVD),
Calculate buoyancy for (negative value),
BF = Pe (Ae – Ai) for open-ended casing,
BF = Pe Ae – Pi Ai for closed casing