Front End Engineering Design or FEED is an engineering design approach adopted prior to detailed engineering, procurement, and construction. It is an important engineering design phase that is used to control project expenses and thoroughly plan a project before bid submission. Benchmark studies have shown that FEED constitutes roughly 2% of the project cost but properly executed FEED projects can reduce up to 30% of costs during design and execution. Front end engineering design is a basic engineering phase conducted after conceptual design or feasibility study. FEED is also known as Front End Loading or Front End Engineering.
Purpose of Front End Engineering Design
The main purpose of FFED or Front End Engineering Design is
- to define the technical and project-specific requirements for an understanding of clear project scope.
- to prepare the project approach and basis of design for the system.
- to develop a good project cost estimate for budget authorization.
- to reduce the risk of the project.
- to estimate the project duration and schedule during the detailed design phase.
A number of preliminary engineering documents are produced in the front-end engineering design phase (Click here to learn about all 12 phases of project implementation) which is used as the start-up documents for the detailed engineering design phase. Combinedly, these documents are known as the “FEED Package”. A good FEED package reflects all of the client’s project-specific requirements to avoid significant changes during the execution phase. The FEED package forms the basis for the design execution of EPC or EPCM projects.
Time Duration for FEED Project
FEED projects are fast track projects. The time duration for a front end engineering design project is normally less than one year. So, it requires enough experience to execute FEED projects with safety within a short time period. Close communication between Project Owners and Operators (Client) and the Engineering Consultant is required to address all the client requirements in the FEED package.
Types of FEED project
Depending on the extent of the detailing required during front end engineering design phases, FEED projects can be categorized into three groups
- Basic FEED
- Intermediate FEED and
- Extended FEED
Front End Engineering Design Deliverables
Considering Piping Engineering as the basis, the front end engineering design deliverables for a FEED project can be listed as follows:
- Basic FEED deliverables:
- Overall Plot Plan
- PMS or Piping Material Specification.
- Tie-in Details
- Intermediate FEED deliverables:
- Deliverables mentioned in Basic FEED
- Piping Purchase Specification
- Piping Layout Design Basis
- Piping Stress Analysis Design Basis
- Interface Register
- Demolition Scope details/drawings
- Concept Notes on the overall plot plan
- The assumption on the design basis
- Extended Feed deliverables:
- Deliverables mentioned in Basic and Extended FEED
- Unit Plot Plan
- Equipment Layout
- Pipe-rack sections
- Pipe thickness Calculation
- Valve datasheets
- Preliminary Stress Analysis for pipe routing/civil loading
- Piping Support Standard
- Special Item list
- Piping Standard Assembly Drawings
- Piping Scope of Work
- Preliminary 3D Model
Typical FEED deliverables with respect to process engineering team is
- Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) and Preliminary P&ID Generation
- Process modeling
- Technical specification and design basis creation
- Equipment specification and sizing
- Safety device sizing and selection
- Full hydraulic calculations
- Pipe Sizing
Inputs required for FEED Project
Roughly the following inputs are required to proceed for a FEED project
- FEED Scope of Work
- Feasibility Study Report
- Location and Details of the area where the plant will be built
- List of Applicable Codes and Standards
- Customers technical practices
Overall, FEED phase is considered as an important and critical planning tool.