Requirements of Sun Shade
- Any building structure used by the industry to store raw materials or for manufacturing products of the industry is known as industrial buildings.
- Industrial buildings can be categorized as normal type industrial building & special type industrial buildings.
- Normal type industrial buildings are shed type buildings with simple roof structures on open frames.
- These buildings are used for workshops, warehouses, etc.
- Sunshades in the oil & gas industries to be provided to cover the main equipment like compressors,turbines, and pumps, etc.
- These shades require large and clear areas unobstructed by the columns.
- The sunshades are constructed with adequate headroom for the use of an overhead travelling crane.
- As sun shades are specifically designed to protect equipment from solar radiation, their sizes are directly related to the angle of the sun during the most intense period of this solar radiation.
- Accordingly, the equipment that needs to be shaded shall be within the boundaries and angles shown in Fig. 1 below.
Types of sunshade
Following are the different type of sunshade
- single side sloping roof
- double side sloping roof
- shed with roof truss
- shed with moment frames or open frames
- fully cladded shed
- partially cladded shed
- shed with overhead electric operated traveling crane(EOT)
- shed with monorail
- prefabricated shed
Basic components of sunshade
Following are the main elements of sunshade
- foundation for shed columns
- base plate & anchor bolts
- tie beams
- moment-resisting frames or portals
- side runners
- vertical bracing system
- plan bracing system
Loads for sunshade design
Following are the main loads to be considered for sunshade design
- dead load
- live load
- crane loads
- wind load on the roof
- wind load on side walls & gable walls
- earthquake loads
- snow load on the roof
- sand accumulation on the roof
- heavy lighting fixture loads
Analysis of sunshade
- Sunshade analysis can be done manually as well as with the help of software also.
- For manual analysis anyone portal to be considered and loads will apply on 2d frame and different forces in columns, beams and portal or truss members can be found out.
- In the recent period, different software is available for analysis & design of 3d geometry
- Sunshade geometry can be easily modeled in STAAD
- After geometry finalization, different loads & load combinations to be applied on the sunshade model in STAAD itself.
- After completing the load combination, run the analysis package in STAAD, and all forces and reactions will be generated.
Design of sunshade
Different codes for designing structural steel shade
- British code: BS – 5950
- American code: AISC – allowable stress design (ASD); AISC – load resisting factor design (LRFD)
- Eurocode: 3
- DEP 34.00.01.30 : structural design & engineering
For performing sun shade design operation in STAAD following are the minimum parameter that shall be considered
- FYLD– YIELD STRENGTH OF STEEL
- BEAM– FOR DESIGN THE MEMBER AT EVERY 1/12TH SECTION LOCATION
- LY & LZ – LENGTH IN LOCAL Y & Z AXIS FOR SLENDERNESS CHECK
- MAIN– CHECKING OF SLENDERNESS RATIO.
- UNL / UNT / UNB – UNSUPPORTED LENGTH
- RATIO– PERMISSIBLE RATIO OF ACTUAL LOAD TO SECTION CAPACITY.
- TRACK– FOR PRINTING THE DESIGN OUTPUT
- DFF, DJ1 & DJ2– FOR PERFORMING DEFLECTION CHECKS.
- CHECK CODE – FOR PERFORMING DESIGN OPERATION AS PER SELECTED CODE.
Sunshade site Photos
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A short article on “Sun Shade for oil and gas industry and their Design”
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